See Figure 2, Figure 3, Figure 4, and Figure 5 for the approaches to the Pohang Anchorages and the Harbors. Note that NGA Chart #95163 is an older chart and may not be as accurate as NGA Chart #95167 and the Korean Chart #135.

Changgi Gap (36°04'N 129°34'E), the southeast entrance of Yongil Man, is the northeast extremity of the peninsula which forms the east side of the bay. In clear weather the cape can be identified at about 18 nmi.

The submerged oil pipeline berth, marked at its seaward end by buoys, has a depth of about 12 m.

Yongil Man (36°04'N 129°28'E), the bay, is surrounded by the mainland on the west and south and Changgi Gap on the east. It is entered between Changgi Gap and Talman Gap (Dalman Gap) (36°06'N 129°26'E), a low point 6 nmi west-northwest.

Yongil Man is open to the northeast, has depths of 49.2-95.2 ft (15 to 29 m) in the entrance decreasing to less than 32.8 ft (10 m) about 0.8 nmi from the head. The bottom is mostly mud and sand, affording good holding ground.

Pohang has two harbors, a natural harbor and a new, man-made harbor. Approach is made from the northeast through Yeongil Bay. The natural harbor (36°02'N 129°22'E) is not suitable for use by large ocean-going vessels and is used primarily by Pohang's commercial fishing fleet.

The much larger, man-made harbor is located about 1.5 nmi southeast of the natural harbor and serves as the primary import and export facility for Pohang Iron and Steel Company (POSCO). Pohang New Harbor (36°01'N 129°25'E), also referred to as Pohangsinhang port, consists of an outer basin with an Inner Harbor.

The Harbor's entrance channel has a 525 ft (160 m) width, decreased to about 295.3 ft (90 m) about 0.5 nmi east of the head of the main breakwater, with a dredged depth of 60.7 ft (18.5 m). Proceeding west to Pier 1, the depth is 59.1 ft (18 m).

The north side of the Harbor is protected by a combined breakwater and loading/unloading wharf. The wharf, approximately 2,025 yd (1,882 m) long, extends east-southeastward from the reclaimed area that forms the northwest part of the Harbor. The eastern half of the structure is a breakwater only; the western half serves the dual-purpose of acting as a protective breakwater and as a railroad accessible loading/unloading wharf. The east side of the Harbor is defined by an approximately 1,350 yd (1,235 m) long combined wharf facility and breakwater.

The entrance to the Inner Harbor is situated between the two protective breakwaters in the northeast corner of the man-made inner harbor. It has a usable width of 328 yd (300 m) with a depth of 59 ft (18 m) near the center of the channel. The head of the south breakwater and the north breakwater are lighted.

Two detached breakwaters are located in the Inner Harbor. The easternmost is approximately 450 yd (411 m) long and the westernmost is approximately 400 yd (366 m) long. The two breakwaters provide increased protection from waves for the facilities in the southwestern part of the Inner Harbor. Figure 27 provides a view from Pier #2 of one of the detached breakwaters in the Inner Harbor.

A Port Traffic Management Service (PTMS) operates within the Pohang Harbor limits. The area of responsibility extends to a 6-nmi radius from Changgi Gap Light. The PTMSW provides navigational information to vessels navigating within Pohang Harbor.

Participation in the PTMS is compulsory for all vessels except fishing vessels. Contact shall be made to Pohang Port Service when vessels are approaching 10 nmi from Changgi Gap Light. Vessels should give an ETA and report any damage or defects to the vessel or equipment which might affect navigation. A continuous watch should be maintained on VHF Channels 16 and 12. Reports should also be made once berthed or anchored, before shifting, before departure, and when leaving berth or anchorage.

In summer it is reported that numerous fishing nets may extend as much as 3 nmi offshore.

A rock, dangerous to surface navigation, lies in a depth of 1.3 ft (0.4 m) in position 36°18.9'N 129°22.9'E.

A sunken wreck, dangerous to surface navigation in position 36°01.2'N 129°27.2'E, is marked by Pohang Shin Hang Lighted Buoy.

As per a Port Visit After Action Report in June 2009 by USS Denver (LPD 9), "The channel was a challenge due to buoys being further away or in different positions than indicated on charts. The buoys still allowed Denver to safely navigate the channel. Radar NAVAIDS were in correct position and helped aid visual picture."

As per a Port Visit After Action Report in June 2009 by USS Higgins (DDG 76),"Upon entering the Inner Harbor, remain flexible and prepare for the unexpected. Two diagonally placed fuel dolphins limit traffic flow to a single lane within the Inner Harbor. During HIG inbound transit, two large GRP III merchants exited the Harbor unannounced by Port Operations. After passing through the narrow channel, HIG was forced to hold position along the northern quay wall with a 30 kt onsetting wind until the first GRP III passed down port side. Once clear, HIG applied stbd twist to back into the slip toward berth at Pier #8. At the same time, second GRP III departed same slip outbound. GRP III passed very close aboard HIG stbd side. Throwing hands in the air, pilot appeared completely surprised by the lack of notification. While jockeying into the berth (port side, bow out) between a moored ship at the bow, quay wall aft, and ship on stbd qtr, the tugs worked against the ship's engines. Conn tried to slow the ship's momentum aft with a 2/3 ahead bell as tugs pulled in opposite direction. The Harbor hosts eight industrial piers, of which several are DDG inaccessible due to shallow depth according to U.S. charts. However, Korean charts emailed the night prior showed a dredged depth of 39.4 ft (12 m) at Pier #8. HIG moored port side to on the east face of Pier #8." "HIG encountered numerous fishing buoys and nets during transit of coastal waters toward Pohang. Note that the large orange buoys are known to be tethered to steel cables, which are attached to nets. The approach channel to Pohang Harbor is well marked by buoys. IALA B Buoyage System applies. An approach range is marked on chart on 241.5 T leg and was visible, but could be blocked by moored merchants. While conning alongside the pier, HIG utilized laser range finder on fantail to provide ranges to aft quay wall." "Both inbound and outbound pilots spoke mediocre English. Outbound pilot directed HIG to remain south of the approach channel, taking all buoys to port and in effect creating an outbound channel." "The channel is well marked by buoys. During inbound leg, HIG focus was on the buoy line to starboard. During the outbound leg, it was noted, and confirmed with a USN MCM in the area, that chart 95167 shows green buoys to port. In reality, the port side of the outbound channel is marked by red-white mid-channel buoys. Chart corrections on file do not indicate an expansion of the channel to include inbound and outbound lanes. The Outer Harbor boasts an 18 m depth, so DDGs can parallel the track outside of the channel to make room for vessels constrained by draft. HIG observed outbound merchant traffic taking the same route south of the buoy line as they exited Pohang Harbor. Additionally, the RW L FL 10S safe water buoy marked on the chart at the end of the outbound channel was physically moored 1 nmi to the west of the charted posit. A lone green buoy several hundred yards south of the channel near the coast was observed. The buoy did not correlate to any charted NAVAID nor would its placement serve as a practical border for the outbound channel." "A sector light (red/white/green) acted as a range for entrance into the Harbor."

As per a Port Visit After Action Report in April 2007 by USS Cowpens (CG 63), "In coastal waters approaching Pohang, Cowpens encountered numerous fishing buoys and nets. Approach range marked on chart on 241.5 T leg was visible, but could be blocked by moored merchants between the forward and aft range. Forward and aft ranges are both white towers with black diamonds. While conning alongside the pier, COW utilized laser range finder on fantail to provide ranges to the merchant moored in Berth #13. COW also utilized a lead line on the forecastle to take soundings due to concerns over water depth in corner near Berth #12. Both inbound and outbound pilots spoke good English. Outbound pilot directed COW to follow in the wake of an outbound merchant and remain south of the approach channel, taking all green buoys to port and in effect creating an outbound channel. Pilot also referred to these buoys by name (A, B, C) which is different than the numbers assigned in our corrections. No NGA chart corrections reflect an expansion of the channel to include inbound and outbound lanes, but channel is not sufficiently wide for two ships to pass and may suggest this in an upcoming change."

Source: http://www.nrlmry.navy.mil/port_studies/thh-nc/korea/pohang/text/entrance_channel.htm