The conclusion reached in this study is that the Port of Pusan (Busan) is not a typhoon haven. All U. S. Navy ships should sortie as soon as possible when the Harbor is threatened by a tropical cyclone. The reasons for a quick sortie include:

1. The lack of protection from wind in the Harbor,
2. The vulnerability of Pusan Harbor to storm surge, and
3. The relatively high speed of advance of approaching storms in conjunction with the length of time to reach a typhoon haven or evade at sea.

Typhoon Maemi in September 2003 caused extensive damage in the Port of Pusan with estimated sustained winds of at least 80 kt. Newspaper reports stated, "The typhoon mauled South Korea's Main Port of Pusan. The storm knocked down 1,000-tonne cranes and tossed boats against each other. At least 82 vessels sank in huge seas and fishing boats were stacked like driftwood on shore roads." "Packing record winds of 135 mph, the typhoon lifted shipping containers in the air, toppled gigantic cranes and flipped an evacuated cruise ship on its side in Busan, South Korea's second largest city and the worst-hit urban area." Previously, in 1959 Typhoon Sarah with 55 kt winds observed in the Bay caused several Republic of Korea Navy vessels to run aground. The tracks for Typhoon Maemi and Typhoon Sarah are shown in Figure 1.

The closest typhoon havens are the Port of Maizuru and the Non-Tidal Basin in the Port of Inchon. Chinhae Bay has typhoon haven qualities but anchoring in Chinhae Bay is not recommended except in an emergency. Please refer to the Inchon, Maizuru, and Chinhae Port Studies for more details.

Two primary evasion routes are available, one to the Yellow Sea and the other to the Sea of Japan (East Sea). The choice will depend on when the sortie decision is made and the forecast track of the tropical cyclone.

NOTE: An additional section has been added to this port study that discusses weather other than tropical cyclones that impacts South Korea.

The Pusan Typhoon Haven evaluation was prepared
by G. Handlers and S. Brand of Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), Monterey, CA.