See Figure 4, Figure 15, and Figure 3 for the approaches to the Pusan Anchorages and the Harbors.

Pusan (Busan) Hang is controlled and managed by the Busan Regional Maritime Affairs and Port (Fisheries) Office and has undergone considerable development. The Port of Pusan, well protected and available for large vessels, is divided by Yongdo into a North and South Harbor. Both Harbors are divided into outer and inner harbors, with the latter being protected by breakwaters. The North Harbor is for ocean vessels, while South Harbor is used primarily by coastal vessels.

The South Inner Harbor lies between the mainland and the northwest end of Yongdo. It has depths of 13.1-29.5 ft (4-9 m) in the bay and is not suitable for large vessels. The Inner Harbor is protected from the south by two breakwaters. The west breakwater extends 1,312 ft (400 m) east from the west shore, and the east breakwater extends 459 ft (140 m) southwest from Yongdo.

A detached breakwater extends 886 ft (270 m) north-northeast south-southwest in the northwest corner of the Harbor. The south limit of the South Inner Harbor is a line drawn east from a point 0.3 nmi north-northeast of Songdo. The north limit is the drawbridge 1.3 nmi north-northeast of Songdo.

The South Outer Harbor is entered between Dangang Mal (35°03'N 129°01'E) and Seangdo, 4 nmi east-southeast. Depths in the main approach to South Outer Harbor decrease gradually from 98.4 ft (30 m) to about 32.8 ft (10 m) north of Songdo (35°04'N 129°01'E).

The North Outer Harbor is entered between Sangi Mal and Seungdu (Sungdu) Mal, about 2.5 nmi north-northeast. The former, the east extremity of Yongdo, is bold precipitous headland, and the latter can be identified by Oryug Do (Oryuk To), a group of four islets lying within 0.5 nmi south of the point. A light is exhibited on the southeast end of Yongdo, about 0.5 nmi south-southwest of Sangi Mal, the east extremity of the island. A Differential Global Positioning System (DGPS) Station and remark are situated on the south islet of Oryuk To. Cho Do (Jodo), on the southwest side of the Outer Harbor, is faced with cliffs on its east and north sides.

New container terminal construction is completed on the north and southwest sides of the North Outer Harbor and a new Republic of Korea Navy (ROKN) Base and pier facilities is situated just inside the Oryukdo Breakwater on the north side of the North Outer Harbor opposite Cho Do Island. U.S. Navy ships tie up at the ROKN Base as well as Pier #8 in the North Inner Harbor.

Speed in the fairway (channel) of the North Outer Harbor and in North Inner Harbor is restricted to 10 kt in depths over 59 ft (18 m) and to 5 kt in shallower depths. The North Harbor Main Channel is 1,148-1,312 ft (350-400 m) wide with a project depth of 49.2 ft (15 m). The Port Authority expects to dredge the Main Channel to a depth of 52.5 ft (16 m) in the future. No completion date was provided during the Site Visit in May 2009.

Entry to North Inner Harbor may also be made from South Inner Harbor but this is regulated by the height of the Pusan Bridge and the opening of the drawbridge close west of it. The bridge has conclusive times of the day when it is open, and when under certain weather conditions it is closed. U.S. Navy ships do not use this route.

A Traffic Separation Scheme has been established in the approaches to Pusan and a Vessel Traffic Service (VTS) Center located on Chodo Island is run by the Pusan Port Services and operates 24 hours/day. A Vessel Traffic Service Reporting Line has been established in the approaches to Pusan Harbor and is identified in Figure 4.

Participation in the VTS is compulsory for all vessels of 300 grt and over, vessels transporting dangerous cargo, towing vessels having a tow of 656 ft (200 m) in length or greater and all foreign vessels. Vessels between 5 grt and 300 grt should report only when entering or departing.

Vessels must report the estimated arrival report approximately 2 hours prior to arrival at the VTS. Other reports are made, as follows:

Entering Report - When entering the VTS Reporting Line.

Arrival Report - Upon arrival at destination.

Shifting Report - When moving to another berth or anchorage.

Departure Report - When departing or heaving up the anchor.

Other rules as stated in the Vessel Guide at Pusan Port are as follows:

* Keeping a watch on the designated working frequency and passive participation is required for all vessels within the Busan VTS area.

* Traffic Separation Schemes (TSS) and Fairway Speed - A vessel using TSS shall proceed in the appropriate traffic lane in the general direction of traffic flow for that lane. So far as practicable, vessels should keep clear of the Separation Zone/ #1 & #2 Sea Buoys. Fairway speed is 10 kt near #1 Sea Buoy.

* A vessel shall notify the VTS of any of the following as soon as practicable: a marine casualty or a pollution incident, involvement in the ramming of a fixed or floating object, a defect or discrepancy in an aid to navigation, or improper operation of vessel equipment. Additionally, the master of a vessel is requested to report any hazardous conditions whenever observed unless they are known to have been previously reported.

* A vessel is required to notify the VTS when the vessel sees whales or any floating materials in order to prevent international high speed passenger vessels from colliding with them.

* All vessels at anchor are vulnerable to dragging caused by unexpected strong blasts. These "Southern Blasts" occur normally in spring and summer and have 1-2 day duration. They occur about 10-20 times per year and have seriously impacted ships particularly in the N-1 though N-5 anchorage areas. Recently, strong blasts caused several collisions between vessels at anchor. Every vessel at anchor shall at all times maintain a proper look out appropriate to the prevailing circumstances and keep a watch on VHF Channel 16 for weather information. Additionally when a "Southern Blast" occurs, Busan VTS will broadcast information on VHF Channel 12 every hour. The main engines should be in stand-by and the ship should be ready to quickly get underway in an emergency.

* A vessel must arrange for their berth/anchorage or any changes for a berth or anchorage in advance or the vessel will not be permitted to do anything.

* Vessels must maintain a safe speed at the termination of the Traffic Separation Scheme (TSS). Most of the towing vessels navigate at slow speed (3-5 kt) 1 nmi off the Sea Buoy in the TSS. Inbound and outbound traffic can expect to meet cross traffic at the termination of the TSS. Ships must navigate at a safe speed with special caution and must follow VTS instructions.

* All vessels are subject to the 1972 Collision Regulation (72 COLREGS), VTS guidance, and all other practices of safe navigation and prudent seamanship.

A Designated Area is established in the approaches to Pusan, seaward of the southeast Harbor limit, within the area of 6 nmi radius, centered on a position 0.2 nmi southeast of the southwest end of Oryukto Breakwater.

While within the VTS, vessels must maintain a continuous listening watch on VHF Channel 12. The priority of vessels within 6 nmi of the Harbor limit is reported by the VTS on VHF Channel 12. Vessels passing the reporting line and vessels bound for Pusan New Port, when arriving, shifting, or departing, must use this channel to report to Pusan VTS.

Several spoil grounds lie in the Harbor approaches. The limits of these areas may best be seen on the charts.

Anchoring and fishing is prohibited within the approaches to the North Outer Harbor extending east to meridian 129°12' E, as seen on the chart.

Fishing nets are laid on either side of the fairway through the North Outer Harbor from September to March. They are also laid over most of the head of the northern part of the North Inner Harbor. The limits of these nets may be extended and caution is necessary, especially at night.

As per a Port Visit After Action Report in July 2008 by USS Gridley (DDG 101), "Pilot pick up point is at the entrance to the traffic separation scheme. Inbound pilot had difficulty locating GRD due to very low visibility. Outbound pilot boarded from the pier. Both pilots spoke a moderate amount of English and provided input to the navigation team. GRD made up two tugs before passing the first breakwater. While mooring, aft tug pushed GRD at a high rate of speed toward the pier, forcing GRD to order an increased bell to avoid colliding with the cruiser moored aft of Gridley's designated berth. Naval vessels should be aware that tugs and pilots work very expeditiously. As a result the pier closure rate may be significantly higher than that which is normally experienced at naval bases." "During the inbound transit visibility IVO pilot pick up was very restricted. This delayed GRD entering port by several hours due to pilots not boarding any vessels until visibility cleared. GRD loitered near pilot pick up point as did several merchant ships. Pilot did not board GRD until visibility improved to 3-4 nmi." "GRD moored port side to Pier #3 in ROKN Base Oryuk-Do Pusan. Base is protected and depth beneath the keel concurred with charted depth." "Upon exiting channel GRD experienced a strong northerly set and steered 10 degrees off intended course in the TSS."

As per a Port Visit After Action Report in October 2008 by USS McCampbell (DDG 85), "The Traffic Separation Scheme (TSS) for the approach to Busan Harbor is marked with a red and white racon buoy. Lights mark the breakwater into the Harbor. All navigational aids in the area appeared well maintained and work properly. The fairway to the Inner Harbor is well marked with buoys on both sides." "Channel connecting Outer and Inner Harbor is 5,000 yards long and 450 yards wide. Channel is lined with buoys. Buoys are clearly labeled on chart and visually with buoy number. MCB stayed 50 yards to right of center of the channel due to merchant traffic transiting in opposite direction. Channel opens to a large turning basin in the Inner Harbor. MCB set up for pier landing by making starboard turn out of channel as the ship passed Buoy #10. MCB twisted to pier heading 500 yards from Pier #83 and backed in."

During the site visit in May 2009, the pilots and Port Authority stated that dredging was still ongoing in the vicinity of the Section 1 Anchorage Area and the berths in the Port. It was also stated that the minimum depth in the channel was 45.9 ft (14 m).

Source: http://www.nrlmry.navy.mil/port_studies/thh-nc/korea/pusan/text/entrance_channel.htm